A Phenomenological Analysis of Invisibility Among African-American Males: Implications for Clinical Practice and Client Retention

Angel Riddick Dowden, Jessica Decuir Gunby, Jeffrey M. Warren, Quintin Boston

This article reports the results of a phenomenological study of racial identity development that asked the following questions: How do African-American males cope with invisibility experiences? What role do counselors play in assisting African-American males cope with invisibility experiences? The study involved the use of semi-structured interviews to explore invisibility experiences among seven African-American males. Results identified four thematic codes: self-affirmation, self-awareness, coping strategies in overcoming invisibility, and providing effective counseling to African-American males.

A Phenomenological Analysis of Invisibility Among African-American Males: Implications for Clinical Practice and Client Retention