Palermo Stone


The Palermo Stone (2400s BC) is a piece of black rock in a museum in Palermo, Sicily. On it is carved in hieroglyphics the oldest known history in the world. It lists the early kings of Egypt and what took place in each year of their rule. Not counting the mythological part, it covers the first four and a half dynasties of Egypt,  roughly the years -3100 to at least -2471.


  • we have only about 10% of it;
  • not all of what we have is readable;
  • historical events are not tied to astronomical ones, so the actual calendar year is a matter of guesswork;
  • Ancient Egyptians’s idea of what counts as an important historical event is not the same as that of Western historians.

It goes on and on about what the king did for this or that god at this or that temple, but says little about the…

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