Racial Essentialism Reduces Creative Thinking, Makes People More Closed-Minded

this just explain the nature of racist Hollywood

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In an article published inPsychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science, researcher Carmit Tadmor of Tel Aviv University and colleagues find that racial stereotyping and creative stagnation share a common mechanism: categorical thinking.

“Although these two concepts concern very different outcomes, they both occur when people fixate on existing category information and conventional mindsets,” Tadmor and her colleagues write.

The researchers examined whether there might be a causal relationship between racial essentialism — the view that racial groups possess underlying essences that represent deep-rooted, unalterable traits and abilities — and creativity.

They hypothesized that, once activated, an essentialist mindset would lead to a reluctance to consider alternative perspectives, resulting in a generalized closed-mindedness.

The researchers manipulated participants’ beliefs about racial essentialism by having them read one of three articles: one that described fictitious scientific research supporting racial essentialist beliefs, one that described fictitious research supporting racial nonessentialist beliefs, or one about the scientific properties of water.

The participants then took a commonly used test of creativity called the Remote Associates Test. The participants were given three distinct words and they had to identify a single target word that linked the three words together. So, for example, given the words “manners,” “round,” and “tennis,” the correct answer would be “table.”

The researchers found that participants primed with an essentialist viewpoint were less creative, solving significantly fewer of the word problems correctly than participants in the other two groups.

Results from a follow-up study showed that the link between racial essentialism and decreased creativity could be explained, at least in part, by an increase in closed-mindedness.

Together, these studies suggest that essentialism exerts its negative effects on creativity by changing how people think, as opposed to changing what they think. This finding fits with previous research on information processing and creativity.

The research also suggests that essentialist beliefs are fairly malleable. While there are many different aspects that still need to be explored, Tadmor and colleagues speculate that it might be possible to use these findings to devise an intervention program that reduces racial essentialist beliefs, thereby leading participants not only to become more socially tolerant but also to unleash their creative potential in the process.

Co-authors on this research include Melody M. Chao of Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; Ying-yi Hong of Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University and Beijing Normal University; and Jeffrey T. Polzer of Harvard University.

This research was partially supported by grants from the European Union Marie Curie International Reintegration Program; the Henry Crown Institute of Business Research in Israel; the Research Grants Council in Hong Kong; and the Ministry of Education, Singapore.

racist, genocidal sharia state of North Sudan cracking down on Christians

latest episode in North Sudan’s war on non-muslims and non-arabs and more silence from the Arab league and the OIC

 

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JUBA, South Sudan, January 10, 2013 (Morning Star News) – Sudanese authorities rang in the new year by bulldozing a church building outside Khartoum because it belonged to Christians of South Sudanese origin and lacked a permit, a source said.

South Sudanese have been ordered to leave the country following the new republic’s secession from Sudan in July 2011, but thousands are reportedly stranded in the north due to loss of jobs, poverty, transportation limitations and ethnic and tribal conflict in South Sudan.

The source told Morning Star News by telephone that officials from the Khartoum State Ministry of Physical Infrastructure accompanied by police on Jan. 2 demolished the building of the Sudan Pentecostal Church in Soba Al Aradi, a Khartoum suburb that began as a refugee camp for South Sudanese. The destruction came without warning as part of a government survey of the area, he said.

“We are surveying this area because it was not officially demarcated,” a civil engineer surveying the area told area Christians, the source said. “We are bulldozing this building because it belongs to a church whose members are South Sudanese, but they are no longer citizens of Sudan.”

Officials said South Sudanese in the area are there illegally, but Christians said the government is targeting churches in its stated objective of making Sudan a purely Islamic country.

A Presbyterian church building in Soba Al Aradi also is slated for destruction, and authorities have already demolished a pastor’s house that was attached to it, the source said. Officials told pastor Mubarak Hamad of the Presbyterian Church of Sudan, an Arabic-speaking congregation, that he needed to apply for a property permit. Pastor Hamad is from the Nuba Mountains, an area of Sudan populated by many of South Sudan origin.

The Pentecostal church building that was reduced to rubble was also lacking official permission, officials told church members. The church had erected the building on land donated by church members, who said they are victims of selective enforcement.

“I saw staff from the Ministry of Physical Infrastructure of Khartoum state with policemen in plain uniform, and a bulldozer destroying the church building,” the source said.

Harassment, violence and arrests of Christians have reportedly intensified since the secession of South Sudan, when Sudan President Omar al Bashir vowed to adopt a stricter version of sharia (Islamic law) and recognize only Islamic culture and the Arabic language.

Church leaders say the government is targeting missionaries and expelling them from the country. Last month Sudan arrested two Coptic priests for baptizing a woman who had converted from Islam to Christianity. The whereabouts of the priests remain unknown, and security organs have refused to allow their families to visit them.

Student Imprisoned
Hostilities against Christians in Sudan have so increased that the country jumped from 16th in 2011 to 12th last year on the 2013 World Watch List of nations where Christians face the most persecution, published by Christian support organization Open Doors.

“The government and society try to squeeze Christians in all spheres of life, and the level of violence escalated in the past year,” the report notes.

South Sudanese Christians in Sudan have faced increased hostilities due to their ethnic origins – though thousands have little or no ties to South Sudan – and their faith. A 33-year-old university student of South Sudanese origin was imprisoned for three months last year after two Muslim women insulted him on a bus, according to a fellow student who requested anonymity.

He told Morning Star News that the women told George John Tangoon on Aug. 28 that he was an “infidel” and should leave Sudan. When Tangoon objected, the furious Muslims ordered the bus driver to go to a police station. Officers held him for three days at Hillat Kuku police station in Khartoum North, where the student said Tangoon was falsely charged with violating Public Order Article 77, which among other things requires men to cede their seats to women on public transport.

Sources said the Public Order Courts are frequently used to try Christians accused of violating Islamic laws that favor Muslims. Without benefit of a lawyer, Tangoon was sentenced to three months in prison, serving his time first at Kober Prison in Khartoum, then Omdurman Prison, and finally Soba Prison south of Khartoum.

He was released in late November.

Photo: Sudanese authorities demolished the Church of St. John in Khartoum without warning on June 18, 2012. (Barnabas Fund photo)

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